By now I would image that Docker needs no introduction, given that is one of the hottest technologies and indeed buzzwords in the industry today. But just in case, we’ll see the basics of it. We’ll also see how you can quickly run a Docker container in AWS and how you can easily deploy your changes to it.


The official documentation defines Docker as “an open platform for developing, shipping, and running applications”. What does that really mean? In simple terms it means that instead of thinking about your application as only the code that you write and then somehow gets deployed into some server in the “cloud”, you can start thinking about your application and those things that it needs to run as a single isolated container that you can just throw at any server and it will work, regardless of what that server already had installed or not.

When you hear about isolation the first thing that probably comes to mind are Virtual Machines. The problem with VMs is that they are usually a bit heavyweight. Even on a pretty decent laptop it usually takes a few minutes for a VM to start. A Docker container, on the other hand, starts in the order of seconds. On a very simplified view of the world, you can see Docker containers as lightweight VMs (although in reality they are much much more than that). Each container can run its own OS, have its own files, run its own processes and so on. Also, unlike VMs where you can probably run just a few of them on a regular piece of hardware, you can easily run dozens of Docker containers on your laptop.

The benefits from using containers for your applications are varied and people are still finding new and innovative ways to put them to good use. Perhaps one of the main benefits is related to deployment and portability. You know the dreaded “It works in my machine” phrase, don’t you? Imagine the following workflow:

  • You develop and test in your local box running your application and all the services it requires on their own isolated environment.
  • Once you are happy with your code you push your changes and the same set of containers that you were running locally are now running in a testing environment.
  • Once you validate your changes in this testing environment you push the same container to be run in Production.

Because of the underlying principles of Docker you are guaranteed that regardless of the differences in environment between your local box, the testing environment and the production environment, your containers (and therefore your application) will run exactly in the same way.

What happens if you decide to move to a different provider for your production environment? Say you were running in AWS and suddenly all your company migrates to OpenStack. As long as the new server is able to run Docker containers, it doesn’t matter. Your containers will still run exactly in the same way as before.

Another huge benefit that I see in Docker is the fact that not only your code runs in a container but also the infrastructure that your code needs, usually in different containers. This, combined with the fact that the community has already created thousands of Docker images for all sort of popular applications (publicly available in Docker Hub) means that you can save yourself a lot of trouble. Say your application needs to use Redis as its backing store. Do you install Redis locally in your box to test while you develop and then make sure that the same version of Redis with the same configuration is installed in each and every new environment? Or do you get an official Redis image and run that same image on every environment with just one command?

A really simple Docker app

Due to the way that Docker works, it needs a Linux kernel to run on. This is obviously not a problem if you are actually using a Linux distribution but it can be an issue if you are on Windows or Mac. The official documentation covers Docker installation on a lot of different platforms. Personally, since I use a Mac mostly these days, I really recommend the boot2docker. It provides a very tiny VM (literally, is based in Tiny Core Linux) where you can run Docker from your Mac terminal (almost) as if you were running it locally.

Enough introductions, lets see an example. We are going to develop a really simple REST service and run it inside a Docker container. We are going to use Python with Flask for this, simply because it’s really easy to get up an running in no time but the language and framework of choice are not really important for this. We could have used Java with Dropwizard or Ruby with Sinatra and the result would be the same. If you don’t want to write the code you can just clone the app from here.

So our application will consist of one file that looks like the following:

from flask import Flask
import os
import socket
app = Flask(__name__)

def hello():
    return 'Hello World from %s' % socket.gethostname()

if __name__ == "__main__":"", debug=True)

In order to get the dependencies we need for our app (just flask in this case) and comply with the 12 factor app we’ll also create a requirements.txt file with just one line:


With these 2 files we can already run our application with:

$ pip install -r requirements.txt
$ python

The application will start a server listening in port 5000. If you run curl localhost:5000 from a different shell you should see a hello world message as a response.

Lets now “dockerize” our application. The easiest way to this is to write a Dockerfile with the steps we want to take. I won’t go into a lot of details about Dockerfiles but you can read about them here. I’m rather going to show you the Dockerfile that we’ll use and describe what each step is doing:

FROM python:2.7
ADD . /code
RUN pip install -r requirements.txt
CMD ["python", ""]

On the first line we are saying that our new image will use the python official image as a base image. The 2.7 part is called a TAG and in this case represents the version of python that we want installed in our image. Next we tell Docker that the container will expose port 5000 to the external world (which is the port where our endpoint will be listening). We’ll see how this is useful in a moment. The third instruction tells Docker that it needs to copy the current directory (where the Dockerfile is placed) and copy it to /code inside the new container. Then, in the following step we tell Docker that we want to cd to that /code directory so that all commands we run after that are executed from within that path. Next we run pip install to install our dependencies into the container and finally we tell Docker that the default command to run should be python

Now that we have our Dockerfile, we can build an image from it using the docker build command: docker build -t python_service .. This step can take a while the first time you run it because it will need to download the python base image first (which is currently around 850 MB, a bit too much if you ask me). When the command finishes you should be able to see your new shiny image after running docker images.

So far you have an image, but not a running container. To run this new image you’ll have to do a docker run --rm --name service1 -P python_service. The --rm parameter tells Docker to delete the container after it has stopped running, which is useful for cases where you are creating lots of different containers to do quick tests because it will save you quite a bit of disk space. Next, we give our container a name. This is completely optional and if we don’t specify a name then Docker will assign the container one by default. The -P parameter means that we want to map every port exposed by the container (in our case just port 5000) into a port in our host. By not specifying any specific port on the host Docker will randomly assign one. Another alternative, if we want to explicitly tell Docker which port to use would be to pass the parameter -p $HOST_PORT:$CONTAINER_PORT. But it is usually a good idea not to do that because we might want to run multiple instances of the same container and they all have to map to different ports. So its usually better to let Docker decide.

After running the docker run command the container will start and you’ll see that it will run our app which is going to be waiting for connections to it. If you now run docker ps on a different shell you’ll see something like this:

CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                     COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                     NAMES
86b331209845        python_service:latest   "python"     2 days ago          Up 12 hours>5000/tcp   python1

Pay special attention to the PORTS part. In your Dockerfile you told Docker that you were exposing port 5000. But remember that when you ran the container with docker run you specified the -P, which meant that the ports exposed by the container would be mapped to randomly high ports on the host. In our case, the 49162->5000/tcp part is telling us that port 49162 on the host will map to port 5000 on the container.

So how do we curl our service now? If we were running Docker natively on a Linux machine we could just do a curl localhost:49162. But since I’m running on boot2docker, I need to get the IP of the boot2docker VM first. This can be easily done with boot2docker ip. Unless you’ve done something to change the default values this IP will be So if we now run curl we get back our awesome hello world message from our running container.

Running manually in AWS

By now you have an independent Docker image with your python service which you can easily run and query with a simple curl. But so far we have only run the container locally, which doesn’t seem like a big improvement over just running the application directly. And indeed it wouldn’t make a lot of sense to do all this work if we are only going to run things locally. So lets see what happens when we want to run the same container somewhere else, like AWS for instance given that they give us a free year with their free tier. This AWS server could be a QA environment for instance.

Before we go into AWS we are going to use the Docker registry to push the image we created before, which is based off the python image and has our app and dependencies all bundled together. The documentation is pretty clear about how you work with the registry so I’ll skip that part (hint: you should use the docker push command).

Now that our image is on the public Docker registry, lets create a micro instance on EC2. Create a new account if you don’t have one yet, go to your EC2 dashboard, instances and click on Launch instance. Choose the Amazon Linux AMI that shows up on the first step, select t2.micro for the instance type, leave all the default options on the next steps until Step 6 where you’ll create a security group for your instance specifying which ports you are going to leave open to the internet. In our case we want port 22 to be able to ssh into our instance. We also want to add a new custom rule to open the high ports that Docker usually uses. So we’ll create a new TCP rule with Port Range between 30000-50000. Finally review your instance and Launch!

Once the instance is running, ssh into it using its public IP, install Docker with sudo yum install -y docker and start it with sudo service docker start. Now that we have Docker installed in our new instance we can use it in exactly the same way that we did locally. Since we pushed our image into the Docker registry before, we can do a sudo docker pull your_user/repo_name and then run our container similarly to how we did before with sudo docker run --rm --name service1 -p 45000:5000 your_image_name. Our container is now running and the host (the EC2 instance in this case) will map its port 45000 to the container’s port 5000 thanks to the -p argument. You can now go to your local shell, run curl your_ec2_public_ip:45000 and… get a “Hello World” message back.

Lets take a moment to think about what just happened. We first created a Docker image and ran it locally to test our app. We then pushed that image into the public registry, pulled it from a freshly created EC2 instance and ran it in exactly the same way. Since all the dependencies were already included in the image, we didn’t need to do anything on the server apart from installing Docker. Same application, same Docker image, same version, same behavior and two completely different environments. What would happen now if we wanted to run the application on a different server? Maybe an OpenStack server, or DigitalOcean or an old laptop at home that is not doing anything else. It would be exactly the same! The only thing that we need in every case is a Linux kernel and the Docker daemon running.

This is certainly great progress but what would happen if we want to make some changes to our code and then redeploy the container again? We would have to push the image again into the public repository, ssh into our instance, stop the running container, pull the new image and finally run it again. Wouldn’t it be great if Amazon could handle all of this for us? Meet Elastic Beanstalk!

Using Elastic Beanstalk

Elastic Beanstalk is a service provided by Amazon to quickly deploy and manage your applications. You don’t need to worry about creating instances or things like load balancing and auto scaling. It can be used to run Web Applications in a variety of languages and, of course, Docker containers.

We are going to use Elastic Beanstalk to run our app and see how we can deploy new versions of it. We’ll first need the eb tool, which can be installed using brew with brew install aws-elasticbeanstalk. Next we’ll need to initialize a git repository with the app code (git init .) and commit what we have so far (git commit -a -m "Initial commit"). Now we can run eb init to configure Elastic Beanstalk. This will be a one time process that will tell EB how to deploy our application. The steps are pretty self-explanatory. Just make sure that you select the “64bit Amazon Linux 2014.09 v1.0.10 running Docker” when you are asked for the solution stack.

Once that is done you can run eb start. It will ask you if you want to deploy the last commit of your app, to which you’ll respond yes. You can then follow the logs shown on the console to get an idea of what eb is doing. This will include creating a S3 bucket, creating an Elastic IP address, a security group for your instance and finally launching your instance. In the end, you will see a message indicating that your application was deployed and is ready to be accessed. Something like: “Application is available at …” an some URL. Go to that URL and see the glorious Hello World message once again.

Now, let change the message on our app to say something different. Edit the file and change the return line for return 'Hello Docker World from %s' % socket.gethostname(). Save and commit your changes to git. Now we’ll use eb to deploy our app once again. Run eb push and Elastic Beanstalk will deploy the new version of your app. When that finishes you go back to the same URL as before and see the updated message.

Interestingly, if you go to your AWS Dashboard and then to Elastic Beanstalk you will be able to see, among other things, all the different versions of your app that you have ever deployed so rollbacks are trivial. And this is all thanks to the fact that EB created a new Docker image every time you deployed a new version. When you are done you can do a eb delete to clean up all the resources that were created.

And that is all there is to it. Your changes get easily deployed with just one command and, as an added bonus, you get to keep a record of all the different versions of your app for easy rollback.


Docker is revolutionizing the way we think about development and deployment. Specially at a time were loosely coupled and small services are the way more and more applications are getting architected. This is still a pretty new area with lots of exciting tools under heavy development and increasing support from big players in the industry. Amazon, for instance, announced its EC2 Container Service in the last re:invent conference to offer easy support for Docker containers, treating them as first class citizens inside the AWS ecosystem. Similarly, in the last DockerCon Europe 2014 they announced, among other things, support for Docker hub in the enterprise and a set of Alpha tools to support easy Docker host provisioning, clustering and orchestration. As well as Docker, other container runtime technologies are making their way to the scene. Where all these technologies and tools will end no one knows but one thing is for sure, containers are here to stay and they will have a bigger and bigger impact in the future. So start playing around with them!